Appendix: Qualitative data from Welsh respondents

June 2020
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Background and context of the report

The Cost of the School Day project was originally set up by Child Poverty Action Group in Scotland to help whole-school communities identify and overcome the cost barriers and poverty-related stigma that shapes and limits children’s experiences of school. More recently, Child Poverty Action Group has joined forces with Children North Eastto expand this work to England and Wales and other parts of Scotland. Working together, we ‘poverty proof’ schools so all children can make the most of the school day. As schools closed their doors, we have continued to look at how household income has affected children’s experiences of education while they learn from home. Many of these challenges are not new, but are being felt more acutely because of the pandemic.

We conducted a survey to gather the views of families in England, Scotland and Wales, in order to understand their experiences of learning during lockdown. We surveyed 3,600 parents and carers, along with 1,300 children and young people, enabling us to understand more about the support offered to families during the initial period of school closures. We placed a particular emphasis on recording the experiences of households living on a low income.

We asked people what was going well, and what support they had needed but did not receive. Our survey looked at support with learning materials and resources, the provision of replacement free school meals, plus pastoral support for family wellbeing, including advice and signposting for financial support. We also asked people what they felt schools need to do to support children as they begin to re-open to more pupils.

You can find the executive summary, full report and the findings explained for children and young peopleon our website here. 


Who took part in our research?

The survey was carried out across Scotland, Wales and England, as this where the Cost of the School Day project is currently being delivered. The eventual number of responses from families in Wales was smaller than the other UK nations. We spoke to 76 parents and carers and 17 children and young people in Wales for this report. Because of the smaller sample size, we need to exercise more caution with the statistical findings. We found that across most areas, the Welsh respondents’ data nonetheless aligned with the UK-level survey results within 1 to 5 percentage points.  The surveys also collected a large amount of qualitative data, and that is the focus of this supplementary briefing.

        76 Welsh parents and carers took part in our research. 72 were female, two were male, and two preferred to self-describe their gender. In total, they had 132 school-aged children between them, ranging in age from four to 19.

        32 per cent of the families were headed by a lone parent, and 68 per cent were in households with more than one parent.

        41 per cent were in receipt of means-tested benefits (referred to as ‘low-income’ families in our report). 59 per cent were not in receipt of means-tested benefits (referred to as ‘better off’ families in our report).

        22 per cent said their children usually received free school meals, and 78 per cent said they did not.

        10.5 per cent of the parents and carers said their children were still attending hub provision for some of the time.

        We gathered evidence from seven secondary school pupils (3 males, 2 female, one preferred not to say, and one preferred to self-describe their gender)

        We gathered evidence from 10 primary school pupils (6 male, 4 female)



How schools help low-income families

Schools across the UK help reduce cost pressures on families in many ways. They enable digitally excluded pupils to get online and provide access to ICT and software. They provide free breakfasts and school dinners. They print off worksheets and they lend out books. Schools also provide pastoral care, ensuring that pupils are safe, happy and able to thrive. For many children, school is the only place they get to see friends, play outside, and participate in sports and the arts. Many families simply do not have sufficient incomes to provide access to these things at home.

Prior to the current pandemic, children growing up in homes below the poverty line were already at a greater risk of poorer educational outcomes and wellbeing, as well as having increased barriers to engagement and participation in school life. We know that certain groups of children face a much higher possibility of living in poverty; this includes children from Black and minority ethnic communities, those in larger or lone parent families, and children in families where someone is disabled. Our research shows that Covid-19 has served to magnify some of the factors that contribute to the negative outcomes associated with growing up in poverty.

 


Our recommendations

We make a series of recommendations in our report, based on what families told us needed to change. In particular, we recommend that:

Support with costs and resources

 

The UK Government should increase child benefit by £10 per child per week. Many families have experienced and will continue to experience increased costs as a result of the pandemic, including costs related to home learning. A £10 uplift in child benefit is the most efficient and effective* way of getting money to families to reduce these cost burdens and tackle child poverty.

*Research[1] carried out by Professor Jonathan Bradshaw and Dr Antonia Keung found that an increase in child benefit of £10 per child per week would reduce child poverty by five percentage points.

Provide all children with the learning tools they need for the curriculum, at home or at school. National government, local government and schools must work together to ensure every child has the equipment and resources they need to take part in the work set by their teachers. While pupils without resources have been acutely affected during the pandemic, we know that children struggle to complete their regular homework for the same reasons.

Schools should be properly funded to remove barriers to learning. While local government and schools are best placed to assess resource needs and allocate what is needed to pupils, national government must ensure resources and plans are in place that leave no child without the tools to fully participate in school activities.

Information regarding financial support and entitlements must reach families. Schools and local authorities should ensure that information about financial entitlements, that are available locally and within the school, are easily accessible to families and they are supported to apply.

Alternatives to free school meals

Cash payments should replace the value of free school meals. Free school meal entitlements have been a lifeline for many families already facing financial pressures that have been exacerbated by the pandemic. Direct payments increase uptake and are preferred by families as they provide flexibility, dignity, safety and convenience, all of which are highly valued.

The earnings threshold for eligibility for free school meals should be urgently reviewed. Many working families are living in poverty but are not eligible for free school meals. The eligibility threshold must be reviewed as a matter of priority to ensure all children in need of this vital support receive it. This would also increase funding for schools to support these pupils’ needs.

 

Supporting pupil wellbeing

Maintain regular contact with pupils and families to support learning and wellbeing. Schools must prioritise keeping in touch with pupils during periods where they may be at home, as children and families say that this helps them to engage in learning and feel supported.

Schools should implement poverty aware approaches, policies and practices as pupils return. Given recent events and the time spent out of school, families may not be able to afford or may not have access to certain items such as school uniforms or learning materials when it’s time to return to school. Schools should take an understanding approach and recognise the struggles families may have faced during school closures.

Returning to school

Children and young people want to spend time with their friends and teachers and feel ‘normal’ again.As they reopen, schools should prioritise safe opportunities for children to rebuild bonds with their classmates and teachers whom they have missed greatly during school closures.

Families must be involved in planning for the return to school. Schools and local authorities should continue to consult with parents so they feel prepared and are able to plan work and childcare arrangements. Pupils should also be included to help reduce some of the worries and uncertainties they are feeling about returning to school life in changed circumstances.


 

Part 1: What Welsh families told us about home learning during lockdown

1.1  Adapting to learning at home

The start of lockdown forced all learning to move out of the classroom and into the home. This required teachers to quickly adapt their learning materials to suit a wide range of home learning environments, recognising that many families would not have all of the resources needed to fully engage with the work being set.

At the same time, families were dealing with extraordinary and frightening changes to their lives. The start of lockdown was marked by panic buying, food shortages and massive changes to people’s ability to earn a living. 42% of the Welsh families in our survey reported a negative change in their finances due to lockdown, such as job losses, furlough or another drop in income.

Given the turbulent circumstances, many schools stepped up and helped families navigate this difficult time. Families told us they really appreciated hearing from their children’s schools, especially signposting them additional support if they needed it

 “School has made it clear that help is available and to contact them with any problems.” (Parent with two children, Rhondda Cynon Taf)

“The school are aware of my financial situation and they have sent me links to see if I qualify for free school meals, EMA” (Single parent with one child, Neath Port Talbot)

“Schools have text about loaning IT equipment and also about accessing free school meals. Neither of these were relevant for us but good to know to advise others if they are unaware. Council has been using social media to get the message out.” (Parent with two children, Neath Port Talbot)

“The message that they are still there for them and the short videos they have done on Instagram, which is a platform most children use, I think was a really personal touch and supported the school ethos of community and support for one another.” (Single parent with one child, Neath Port Talbot)

 

1.2  How schools have helped families cope during lockdown

We collected some examples of schools going to extraordinary lengths to support families during this time. Parents, carers and children across several counties told us about the extra help they’d received when they needed it most.

On support with learning resources:

“They dropped us some stationery, set up the hwb (we've yet to use it due to not having the technology), they sent home packs at the end of school. [They also helped by] asking what we need and trying to get it for us. One of the classroom assistants picked up my prescription for me which was very kind of them.” (Single parent with two children, Carmarthenshire)

 

On communication and check-ins:

“Teacher phone me up to check how is my child is doing, send an email letter to permit my child who has additional needs to permit him to go out twice a day. Offer help and guidance about the HWB and other learning apps [to] learn at home.” (Parent with two children, Swansea)

“The phone call that was genuinely to check how the children are, to hear the teachers really do miss the kids and their personalities and care about us functioning as a unit rather than checking on homework tasks. That’s lovely.” (Mother with two children, Neath Port Talbot)

“It's not necessarily the resources, it's been the phone calls and offer of any support that I have found the most helpful.” (Single parent with three children, Neath Port Talbot)

On digital platforms:

“The Welsh government gives us Hwb which is really helpful, it has free access to microsoft software and also a version of Minecraft that my daughter loves to play.” (Single parent with one child, Rhondda Cynon Taf)

“The school send fantastic work topics, ideas and support to do, take part in and use as starting off points. There is regular contact via email, seesaw, Google classroom and phone calls. There was a motivational music video from the staff with a fitness theme to encourage staying active and boost moral also.” (Parent with two children, Rhondda Cynon Taf)

Part 2: Resources in the home learning environment

2.1  Many households do not own all learning resources they need

 

The Welsh Government’s ‘Stay Safe. Stay Learning’ strategy clearly recognises that the school learning environment cannot be replicated in people’s homes, not least because many parents and carers have had to juggle paid employment and home schooling throughout the lockdown. It recognises that schools have needed to tailor learning and experiences to meet the needs of parents/carers under different circumstances. The strategy and guidance also recognise that many learners lack the resources they need to participate in online learning. Our research attempted to get a more detailed picture of what was missing in learners’ homes.

Low-income families were more likely to tell us that they did not have all the resources they needed for their children to take part in learning during school closures. 45 per cent said they were missing at least one essential resource, compared to 32 per cent in better off families.

More than half of the families who told us they were missing at least one essential resource said that their children didn’t have access to a suitable digital device to do their home learning. It was common for households to report having only one device for the whole family, with conflicts over who should get priority for using it. Some parents were trying to continue working from home and having to ration access between themselves and their children.

“I have one computer between 3 children and it is difficult as I have to have the children to have set times, I have asked the school if they could provide me with some help however due to not being entitled to free school meals this is not a priority for parents who work.” (Single parent with three children, Neath Port Talbot)

“We don't have another laptop or suitable tablet for our children to do their work with my husband and I working from home. We have received lots of resources from the school but we don't have a printer so it can be quite frustrating.” (Parent with two children, Bridgend)

“We only have 1 computer which I need for my job. We're not getting any resources or ideas on learning from the school either.” (Single parent with one child, Neath Port Talbot)

“Most of the learning needs to be done online, and we're directed to websites and apps to practice maths and English/Welsh. She doesn't have a device of her own so I have to let her use my phone or work laptop, which means I can't work myself. She is not keeping up with the work being set by the teacher.” (Single parent with one child, Rhondda Cynon Taf)

“[Lack of ICT] means we can’t access their school work very easily. When we ran out of paper, it took quite a while to get more, because I can't drive and I'm shielding.” (Single parent with two children, Carmarthenshire)

Where families did sometimes have the devices they needed, they still found it hard to navigate the online systems schools were using to provide lessons.

“We haven't been able to access his mainstream lessons. There appears to be a technical glitch and I don’t have the tech skills to solve it.” (Parent with three children, including a child with Additional Learning Needs, Swansea)

Not having a printer emerged as a major theme across the Cost of Learning in Lockdown surveys. More than a quarter of the Welsh parents we surveyed had to buy a printer during lockdown (26 per cent). Half of these parents were living on a low income. Some parents even told us they had resorted to writing out PDFs and worksheets by hand so their children could still do the work.

“[We have] no printer to print any worksheets. It means we have to do the work later as we have to wait until my husband can print out the sheets at work. I have handwritten some, where [there’s] not too much.” (Parent with two children, Swansea)

 

 

2.2  Space to work at home

Some families told us that they lacked a suitable space for children to do their schoolwork. Often families were all trying to make use of the same small space, with parents working from home and siblings taking turns on the only computer in the house. Families with disabled children, including those with additional learning needs, told us that having the whole family trying to work at home could be particularly difficult.

“Children would normally work downstairs at different times. The youngest has autism and because of his needs the other has had to work in her room so we've struggled for a suitable desk and chair for her.” (Parent with two children, Swansea)

“I have a small room with just enough room for my bed, TV unit & drawers for my clothes. We have a dining table that I could use, but it is in the one room we have (besides the kitchen) downstairs. I have a younger sister who spends most of her time in this room, so it is difficult to concentrate.” (16 year old boy, Rhondda Cynon Taf)

“[I do my schoolwork in] my bedroom, on my bed. My mum is working from home and has to have a confidential area and a desk.” (13 year old boy, Swansea)

“Both myself and partner are working full time. I'm a key worker so I've set up in the kitchen and my partner in the living room there's no real additional space for my child to do school.” (Parent with one child, Swansea)

 

2.3   Purchasing resources during lockdown

Analysis of our data showed that low-income parents in Wales were more likely to have bought learning materials like stationery, arts and crafts materials and printing resources during lockdown, compared to those in better-off homes. Our qualitative research suggests that this is because low-income families were less likely to own these resources prior to lockdown, often relying on schools to help offset the cost of providing learning resources. Many families in Wales do not have enough money to buy all the food that they need[2] or heat their homes[3], so it is understandable that they may not have adequate resources for learning at home.

“[I have been buying] paper, glue, making stuff. It's just all extra expensive, I can't keep paying for [it].” (Single parent with one child, Neath Port Talbot)

 

The chart above shows the most common resources purchased by Welsh parents and carers during lockdown. 46 per cent said they had not purchased anything at all.

By breaking the data down further, we can see that the low-income families we spoke to were more likely than better-off families to report buying all kinds of resources to continue their children’s learning during lockdown. Even when looking at considerably more expensive items such as laptops, tablets and devices, low-income families were equally as likely to say that they had bought these, when compared to other families we spoke to. 

2.4  Provision and support for children with additional learning needs (ALN)

Some parents with children with ALN reported difficulty accessing differentiated materials and appropriate support for their children to continue learning during this time.

“I would like my son's mainstream teachers to plan for him in their lessons. Also I could do with being able to communicate easily with all his teachers to find out what they expect of him. It has become more apparent that the mainstream teachers lean heavily on the TA to make it possible for him to 'fit in' - it's the only way he is included. He isn't imagined in the design of school as the way the system organises children like my son is to send him to a special school. He is placed in a special unit in a mainstream school but it still segregated systematically. He doesn't have equity, he doesn't get the same experience and when they do include him it is framed as being a favour.” (Parent with three children, Swansea)

“[We have] no lesson plans or work for my sons specialised curriculum” (Single parent with one child with ALN, Cardiff)

2.5  Continuing Welsh medium education at home

More than a quarter of Welsh children benefit from having at least half of their education delivered through the medium of Welsh, and for many it is the only language they use at school. Welsh-medium schools have had to take extra measures to ensure children who don’t speak Welsh at home are still able to participate in learning.

We heard examples of good practice in helping non-Welsh-speaking parents support their child’s education in Welsh.

“Video has been posted along with scripts for Welsh home work, which [was] helpful for non fluent Welsh speaking parents.” (Parent with two children, Swansea)

“My school has done lots to help me keep learning...Videos from teachers at school explaining things to do. Lots of practical activities. No pressure to complete work. Good use of Google classroom. Lots of stories read by teachers to help with hearing the Welsh language (I go to a Welsh medium school)” (Year 5 pupil, Cardiff)

Nevertheless, some parents and carers said they struggled to support children with their Welsh medium learning, because they didn’t speak the language themselves.

“My youngest is in Welsh school, we don't speak enough Welsh to understand the work. We are given an overview of the work done, but no actual translation of the actual work. I have had to take screenshots/photos and send to friends who speak Welsh. [It would help to have] an overview of how the classrooms hwb/Google classroom work. We are having to fumble through it all.” (Parent with two children, Swansea)

“[We need] Welsh/English support. I don't know Welsh and they are in a Welsh speaking school so I don't feel confident to help them as I don't understand myself.” (Single parent with two children, Carmarthenshire)

2.6  Engaging children with learning at home

In line with the rest of Britain, one in three families in Wales said that learning at home was fairly straightforward, or that they and their families were enjoying learning from home. These families were much less likely to report having money worries and were more likely to have the resources that they needed. However, the other two thirds of families reported finding it difficult not being at school. These families were more likely to be struggling with money and missing essential resources.

 

There were some examples of how schools have worked hard to support wellbeing and keep learners engaged and motivated.

“The school has been excellent. They use Google Classroom which is easy for me to monitor that work is being done and sent back to the teachers. They have contacted us a few times to see how things are going, which is above and beyond in my opinion.” (Parent with one child, Cardiff)

“A weekly call to check on well-being. My middle child's school continued with their timetable, online, which really helped him as he is autistic and likes routine.” (Parent with three children, Vale of Glamorgan)

“Teachers encourage children to take part online Eisteddfod, encourages us to share some of our daily activities on Class DoJo…Sometimes the teacher shared their lockdown daily life via video or pictures in Class Dojo.” (Parent with two children, Swansea)

“The school have made contact with me to give feedback on how my child has been performing in relation to home working. We have also had reassurance we can ask for help at any time at all or clarification as to the current exam situations.” (Single parent with two children, Neath)

These families really valued the support they received from their teachers, especially when it involved positive feedback and encouragement for their children. However, not all parents and learners found it easy to make the switch to learning from home, and some found it hard to stay motivated if they were not getting much feedback from their schools.

“I have not really heard from my teachers since I have been at home. Work is posted online but I have no feedback after completing my tasks. I feel fed up and like school doesn't care about what I am doing.” (10 year old girl, Wrexham)

“I wish there was a more direct way to contact my teachers. An email would be fine. Somewhere I could submit questions & get answers from the teachers who actually teach me.” (16 year old boy, Rhondda Cynon Taf)

“My youngest child is in year 6 and has had virtually no communication from her school, and no support. Work has been assigned on Seesaw, but not marked. There has been no contact from the school to check on the pupils progress or wellbeing.” (Parent with two children, Wrexham)

 

More than a quarter of respondents across our surveys said they thought synchronous/live streamed lessons would have been beneficial for their children’s learning, motivation and wellbeing.

“Zoom classes would be beneficial as I struggle to motivate my children to do the work.” (Parent with two children, Wrexham)

“It would be nice if my children could have face time, an online class with his teacher and class mates as he so dearly missed his friends. It’s a useful alternative teaching methods if the lockdown continues for few months.” (Parent with two children, Swansea)

 

Many parents reported that lockdown was affecting their children’s wellbeing, which had an impact on how well they were engaging with learning.

“I would like to have more one to one support to help my daughter understand what she needs to be doing, and to help her general wellbeing. She is missing school a lot and finding the lockdown hard being cut off from everyone.” (Parent with one child, Rhondda Cynon Taf)

“As I suffer with depression, the anxiety trying to get my daughter to get schoolwork is affecting my mental health. Some support to say if we are doing enough would be helpful.” (Single parent with one child, Wrexham)

“My daughter is finding lockdown really hard because she is an only child and misses her friends at school so much. I wish the school could arrange some kinds of social interaction for her as I think it would really engage and motivate her. She is not interested in learning unless it is a social experience or involves a lot of play. The Twinkl worksheets they send are of no interest to her.” (Single parent with one child, Rhondda Cynon Taf)

This was an even bigger challenge for families with disabled children and those with additional learning needs.

“Having a severely ASD child it's very difficult to teach them at home, especially when can't go outside for resources/location.” (Parent with one child, Swansea)

“Accommodating for the disabled child's needs has had an impact on the other... to find peace and quiet to concentrate and the support from parents.” (Parent with two children, Swansea)

 

Part 3: Replacing free school meals in Wales: perspectives from parents and carers

As schools in Wales closed in mid-March, local authorities quickly responded by setting up replacement schemes so that children eligible for free school meals could still access food. Many initially opted for ‘grab bags’ that could be collected from designated schools, while waiting for further government guidance.

At the start of April, it transpired that major problems were emerging with the Edenred supermarket voucher scheme in England, leaving hundreds of thousands of children without the support they are entitled to. Wales wisely chose to steer away from commissioning a similar scheme, but stopped short of directing local authorities to provide direct payments to families’ bank accounts in lieu of free school meals. Instead, guidance was updated to suggest providing food parcels or supermarket vouchers, with direct payments relegated to a third option on the list.

Many poverty-aware councils immediately made the switch to direct payments where possible. This had the effect of considerably increasing take-up of FSM entitlements in some local authorities. As of the end of May, 20 of Wales’ local authorities were offering families the option of receiving money to cover the costs of meals while their children are home from school.

Of the parents and carers that responded to the survey in Wales, just over 20 per cent were eligible for free school meal entitlements. The majority of these families are accessing this through direct payments to their bank accounts (76 per cent). We heard overwhelmingly that this was working extremely well for families.

Families were very satisfied with cash payments as it gave them choice and flexibility about where to shop and what to buy, which was particularly important for children with dietary requirements.

“Money in the bank is much easier as I have 2 autistic children with restrictive diets. Collecting a packed lunch wouldn't work as they wouldn't eat the things provided. The money means I can get the foods they will eat from whichever shop sells it. The food bank deliveries, which come to my house, feed me and the 5 year old and they provide the staples for me to make healthy dinners. There are lots of things the older two will eat as well.” (Single parent with three children, Neath Port Talbot)

“I prefer the cash payment as opposed to vouchers, I'm shopping at different stores depending on queue sizes each week. I'd be likely to forget to bring vouchers with me.” (Single parent with one child, Neath Port Talbot)

“They have just changed to cash payments which means we can buy suitable food for my son with allergies. My children didn’t like most food in the parcel.” (Parent with two children, Pembrokeshire)

Parents also commented on the ease of being able to transfer money to others if they couldn’t do the shopping themselves.

“It means I can transfer the money directly to the person who is doing our shopping.” (Single parent with one child, Swansea)

Almost all of the families currently receiving cash said it was their preferred method and they would choose to continue receiving support in this way. Families added that it had really ‘helped’ them with additional costs and meals.

“The money put into bank every week helps so much with meals.” (Parent with two children, Neath Port Talbot)

Of those accessing the entitlement through other solutions e.g. food delivered to the door or collected from schools or hubs, most would have preferred to receive support through a different method.

“They deliver a food parcel for the whole family for a month. I’m vegan and not everything is suitable.” (Single parent with two children, Carmarthenshire)

 

Part 4: Getting Back to School

4.1 What children and young people want to happen

We asked young people what they were most looking forward to when they returned to school. By far the most common answer was seeing friends and playing together again.

“I am looking forward to seeing my friends again.” (9-year-old boy, Rhondda Cynon Taf)

“Doing my school work. Seeing my friends. Looking forward to seeing my teacher.” (7-year-old girl, Neath Port Talbot)

“Playing with my best friend and having school dinners.” (6-year-old girl, Rhondda Cynon Taf)

“I miss my friends so want to see them again.” (10-year-old girl, Wrexham)

“Playing with my friends in the yard.” (5-year-old boy, Cardiff)

“Going back to after school club because we don't do any work we just play play play play.” (7-year-old girl, Rhondda Cynon Taf)

“Seeing my teacher, & routine.” (17-year-old girl, Swansea)

 

4.2 What parents want to happen

Parents and carers in Wales were overwhelmingly in favour of a phased return that prioritises wellbeing and mental health for their children. They recognised that it might take some time for children to feel safe enough to start learning again. They hoped that schools would nurture children and find ways to help them reconnect with friends.

“A good transition plan especially as they have special needs. Needs to be as normal as possible.” (Parent with two children, Wrexham)

“All she wants is to see her friends. She needs help to get used to social distancing at school, to be treated gently and kindly, and to be given help to catch up with peers who have probably made learning progress during the lockdown because their families are able to commit to full time homeschooling. She would like all her lessons to be outdoors if possible, and can't wait to start having school dinners again.” (Single parent with one child, Rhondda Cynon Taf)

“The staff to take into consideration the differing circumstances of children and cut them a lot of slack while they catch up academically.” (Parent with three children, Vale of Glamorgan)

“Staggered return, mental health support for children, lower targets and expectations until children are settled.” (Parent with one child, Caerphilly)

“Going back to the routine of school will be extremely difficult for my children, but that's the same after the summer holidays. Patience and gradually getting them back to full time tables and lessons will help.” (Single parent with three children, Neath Port Talbot)

“It's going to take a long time to get my son back in to routine. A lot of forward preparation and also need help with his anxiety.” (Parent with one child, Carmarthenshire)

“Do it as soon as possible, be warm, be understanding, don't scare them.” (Parent with two children, Cardiff)

“Ensure they are safe from possible contamination, make sure the social distancing policies don’t negatively impact my children's mental health, and make sure they can play with other children.” (Single parent with two children, Carmarthenshire)

 

 



[1] Bradshaw J and Keung A (2020) Poor children need a coronavirus bonus, York: Social Policy Research Unit

[2] Food Standards Agency (2018) Food Insecurity in Wales

[3] StatsWales (2019) Fuel poverty estimates for Wales 2018: Headline results